After the Tharrawaddy insurrection was put down by the British, a number of fleeing soldiers flocked to the banner of "Yar Kyar", an esoteric demagogue who had organized a militia he dubbed the "Galon Army". On January 4th, the rebel seized the Government House, which served as the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor and one of the main nerve centres of the colonial administration. The group met and drilled in secret, despite government restrictions on freedom of assembly and ownership of weapons. )The spelling and punctuation reflects the original. Both men were infamous for their very authoritarian methods and attempts to quell the nationalist movement. Read the Declaration of Independence as presented on July 4, 1776. After two decades of military rule, an opposition figure rose out of the ranks and began a campaign to remove the military from power. The Native Infantry Barracks eventually fell after a major mutiny broke out, requiring British forces to relocate south-east, consolidating themselves at the European Infantry Barracks to the south of the Shwe Dagon Pagoda. The British government had been engaged in high-level lobbying for almost a year to persuade the Burmese government to sign. The Declaration of Independence was preceded by another Declaration of Independence, signed by Ba Maw on 1 August 1943. A group of elders from Burma's Shan ethnic group has declared a Shan State independent from the military junta. While the provisional government won hearts and minds, it soon became apparent that it had massively overpromised what it was capable of achieving in such a short time. The struggle against the aggressor continued in one form or another as opportunity allowed or weapons were available, while British greed and tyranny kept the fire in every Burmese heart raging". A Message on U.S. To fight back against the Imperial Police and Craddock's police spies, an initiative was spearheaded by the radical intellectual, U Maung Gyee, which saw the founding of the Ye Tat or "Brave Militia". This campaign was painted in explicitly populist terms, hoping to appeal to the peasantry and ethnic minorities in the rural sections of the country, such as by promising vast reforms of the Thatthameda land tax. Events such as the Burmese Shoe Scandal, protests in the aftermath of the Government of India Act's failure to pass the British parliament and after the implementation of martial law in Burma, as well as the University Strike of 1920 gave Burmese citizens their first experiences in taking direct political action and making their voices heard. The other two guns had been swiftly evacuated to the Examination Battery on Dry Tree Point, along the Rangoon River, where they would continue firing upon the city as the British forces evacuated to Syriam. Independence… Following the wave of riots throughout August and September 1924, following the assassination of U Ottama, British troops employed any means necessary to hold onto control in Mandalay. N early every nation that went through a revolution has a founding manifesto. A Burma Independence Preparatory Committee chaired by Ba Maw was formed 8 May 1943 and the nominally independent State of Burma was proclaimed on 1 August 1943 with Ba Maw as "Naingandaw Adipadi" (head of state) as well as prime minister. The only ordnance installation in Burma at the time was the Rangoon Arsenal, located 12 miles north of Rangoon and only accessible by a special railway line through the rough terrain. . In the aftermath of the Amritsar Massacre in India, which marked the beginning of the Indian Revolt, various Burmese political groups took on much more far reaching demands for political and economic sovereignty. Here's how you say it. Soon after the war Britain set up an interim Burmese government, whose elected Assembly in 1947 decided that Burma should be an independent sovereign republic, outside the British Commonwealth. Shortly thereafter, an evacuation of Mandalay was ordered, with British forces moving south in an attempt to hold onto the Tharrawaddy region between Mandalay and Rangoon, hoping to isolate the two rebel strongholds from one another and to starve them out. The spark for this revolution came suddenly, after Lieutenant-Governor Reginald Craddock approved a measure to assassinate the radical monk U Ottama, who had long been acting as the unofficial bridge between the Indian and Burmese nationalists movement. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. An early copy of the Burmese Declaration of Independence, barring signatures. This special holiday holds a great significance in the history of Myanmar, as it marks the date in 1948 when Myanmar declared its independence from Britain. The senior editor justified this controversial narrative by explaining that the ideas in The Declaration of Independence were false because slavery still existed after the document was signed. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! The Declaration of Independence (back) There is one line of text along the bottom edge on the back of the Declaration. Just after the Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, the post independence Burmese Government was overthrown and the military took control of the State. The document was jointly penned by Zawgyi, Min Thu Wun, Ohn Pe and Win Sein, and translated into English by Maung Maung, U Thant, Khin Maung, and Khin Zaw. Eventually though, a clique of student radicals and monks of the GCSS seized the reigns of power, delivering fiery speeches at several impromptu GCBA meetings, where they declared that the British would try to stomp them out no matter what. The Burma Independence Act 1947 (1947, 11 Geo. See more ideas about Burmese language, Burmese, Language. The Kachin Independence Army has put its troops on high alert as Burmese government plans to build a road close to its territory threaten to spark fighting. De-facto independence for Burma, creation of the Republic of Burma, beginning of civil war between the Rangoon government and ethnic minority groups This meant forces had to be spread out to quell these new insurgencies, lest the front with Bengal completely collapse. Independence is granted to Burma. Shan National Sao Shwe Taik became the new country’s first President and U Nu its first Prime Minister. On Jan. 4, 1948, Burma (now officially known as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar) marked an end to … Advertisement - story continues below August, 1924 The independence declaration, excerpts from addresses of Myanmar’s independence hero General Aung San, and nine independence oaths including the pledge for equality were carved on the monument. Chit Hlaing recognized however that morale on the frontlines against the European Infantry Barracks was faltering, and to declare the republic now would greatly intensify the rebels' determination and political unity. The arsenal was the site of numerous labour struggles throughout the 1920s, with both British soldiers and Burmese workers protesting the poor pay and the forms of abuse they had been subject to by local officers, a struggle which came to a head around the Christmas season of 1924 as the trend of overwork and underpay only intensified under the ongoing critical conditions. Background: The Declaration On 5th June 2014 the government of Burma signed the Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict. The Kachin War was a long bush war between the Burmese government and the pro-independence rebels in its Kachin Province.In the end, the province gained independence as the Republic of Kachin. The Japanese took Burma by March 1942 and though many Burmese fought initially on the side of the Japanese in World War II, many others fought with the British. Tensions within Burma had steadily escalated throughout the early 20th century, as a consequence of a growing sense of national identity amongst the Burmese upper and middle classes. Whilst this was enough to further embolden the rebels, some members of the nationalist movement recommended to hold off on formally declaring a Burmese Republic until Rangoon had been fully liberated, or at least until the rebels had seized the other main administrative centre, the Government Secretariat.  The Japanese felt that this would give the Burmese a real stake in an Axis victory in the Second World War, creating resistance against possible re-colonization by the western powers, and increased military and economic support from Burma for the Japanese war effort. "Even the Burmese military regime and some political groups did not support the declaration of Shan State Independence, but some Karen, Mon and Karenni organizations have upheld with Shan leaders. In time, U Ottama and his beliefs, dubbed "Ottamanism", became the guiding light for the coming few months, as riots and minor uprisings broke out across all of Burma. Today, the United States grapples with racial injustice that continues despite our long struggle to … News soon reached the Mandalay garrison that local revolts were beginning to break out to the west in the Chin Hills and to the north in the Kachin Hills. Notably, it declined to join the British Commonwealth. The Rangoon Field Brigade at the Monkey Point Artillery Battery was also reinforced, but the battle seemed to be turning in the rebels favour, as the Burmese retook their city, street by street. We celebrate the day that Americans threw off the bonds of tyranny and claimed self-determination for ourselves. Members of the Ye Tat and the nascent Tatmadaw, photographed shortly before the Rangoon Arsenal Raid. It reads, "Original Declaration of Independence dated 4th July 1776," This docket (identifying label) was visible when the document was rolled up for storage. The Burmese people therefore, by this solemn declaration now made in their name and in accordance with their national will by a Constituent Assembly representing them, publicly proclaim that this day forever Burma is a full independent and sovereign State and that she has severed herself completely from Britain and the British Empire. However, independence didn't come free as U Nu had to agree that he would not nationalize British companies in Burma, such as Burmah Oil Company.This led to the Communist Party of Burma protesting that we might have gotten the national independence, but we didn't get the economic independence and went guerrilla against the government in the same year. The declaration of Independence. Independence Day (Burmese: လွတ်လပ်ရေးနေ့) is a national holiday observed in Myanmar on January 4 of every year. Declaration of Independence worksheets and online activities. The 1619 Project proclaimed that 1619 was the year America was founded and not 1776. The Indian Ceasefire and decline of the conflict. After the declaration of independence, in 1962, the military led by General Ne Win took control of Myanmar again through a coup d etat. After the historic ceremony, the Constituent Assembly was convened with the declaration of Burma independence by President Sao Shwe Thike. He took office in the provisional Burmese government that formed in 1946. Although initially headed by just native Weltkrieg veterans and Ye Tat members, the Tatmadaw was soon joined by deserting soldiers in the colonial armed forces and Indian volunteers. There had been initiatives dating back to the era of the YMBA, promoting communal activities for Burmese youth, but the Ye Tat’s purpose was to clandestinely build social cohesion and to instill both patriotism as well as military training in Burmese youths. of the Burma Independence Act, 1947. The king of Burma renounced the throne in 2256 due to the internal threat, which resulted in the Burmese declaration of independence, but his Thai counterpart didn't and continued fighting till the spring offensive in the beginning of 2257, in which the Thai king renounced too … The document was jointly penned by Zawgyi, Min Thu Wun, Ohn Pe and Win Sein, and translated into English by Maung Maung, U Thant, Khin Maung, and Khin Zaw. Wars between the kingdoms — as well as Lan Sang, which would one day become Laos, the Burmese Kingdom and Cambodia — were frequent and bloody, with kingdoms rising and falling. A draft of which had been circulating around the nationalist movement ever since mid-October, the previous year, and many of Burma's foremost intellectuals and artists had lent their wisdom and creativity to forge the document which would come to define the reborn nation. Declaration of Independence: A Transcription. The Kaiserreich Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Fighting went on over the course of 14 months, culminating in the Provisional Government of Burma signing onto the Indian ceasefire, which left the conflicts in both India and Burma at an uneasy standstill. All of this was also complimented by the GCBA and GCSS's vast network of Wunthanu Athin, rural political societies that could easily relay messages and coordinate actions between the nationalists. Butler had been a very vocal opponent of the political Wunthanu associations, as well as the political organizing of the Karen peoples that had taken place during his term. One reason is that national leaders such as U Nu, U Ba Swe, and Ne Win had many misunderstandings about socialism, both before and after independence. A large, impromptu ceremony was held within the Government House in Rangoon, wherein several prominent politicians such as Chit Hlaing and U Ba Pe, alongside several militia captains and revolutionary demagogues took to the stage in turn, each describing their hopes and dreams for the Burmese nation, as vast banners were unfurled from the nearby balconies. British Imperial Police attempting to quell a riot in Mandalay, 1924. The date celebrates Myanmar's Declaration of Independence from the British rule on 4 January 1948. Britain responded by fanning out small columns who burnt down villages and farmland as a punitive measure. 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